An: 3
N: 4
Am: [6.941 (2)] g/mol
Group No: 1
Group Name: Alkali metal
Block: s-block
Period: 2
State: solid at 298 K
Colour: silvery white/grey
Classification: Metallic
Boiling Point: 1615K (1342oC)
Melting Point: 453.69K (180.54oC)
Density: 0.534g/cm3

Discovery Information

Who: Johann Arfvedson
When: 1817
Where: Sweden

Name Origin

Greek: lithos (stone). "Lithium" in different languages.


Lithium is widely distributed but does not occur in nature in its free form. Because of its reactivity, it is always found bound with one or more other elements or compounds. Found in trace amounts in the minerals; spodumene (LiAl(SiO3)2), amblygonite (Li,Na)AlPO4(F,OH)), lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al,Si)3O10(F,OH)2). Most commercial lithium is recovered from brines sources in Chile. Also obtained by passing electric charge through melted lithium chloride. Around 39 thousand tons are produced every year.


Universe: 0.006 ppm (by weight)
Sun: 0.00006 ppm (by weight)
Carbonaceous meteorite: 1.7 ppm
Earth’s Crust: 20 ppm
Seawater: 0.18 ppm
Human: 30 ppb by weight; 27 ppb by atoms
Gambar Lithium is found in trace amounts in the mineral lepidolite


Used in batteries, ceramics, glass, lubricants, alloy hardeners, pharmaceuticals, hydrogenating agents, heat transfer liquids, rocket propellants, vitamin A synthesis, nuclear reactor coolant, underwater buoyancy devices and the production of tritium. Deoxidizer in copper and copper alloys.
Alloys of the metal with aluminium, cadmium, copper, and manganese are used to make high performance aircraft parts. Lithium salts such as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), lithium citrate, and lithium orotate are mood stabilizers (the effect is due to the lithium ion, so the type of salt is unimportant). They are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, since unlike most other mood altering drugs, they counteract both mania and depression. Lithium can also be used to augment other antidepressant drugs. Useful amounts of lithium for this use are only slightly lower than toxic amounts, so the blood levels of lithium must be carefully monitored during such treatment.
Lithium metal is used as a catalyst in some types of methamphetamine production, particularly in illegal amateur "meth labs."


Petalite (LiAlSi4O10), which has lithium in it, was discovered by the Brazilian scientist Jose Bonifacio de Andrade e Silva in the late 1700s on a trip to Sweden. Lithium was discovered by Johan August Arfwedson in 1817. Arfwedson found the new element within the minerals spodumene and lepidolite in a petalite ore (LiAl(Si2O5)2) that he was analyzing during a routine investigation of some minerals from a mine on the island Uto in Sweden. In 1818 Christian Gmelin was the first to observe that lithium salts give a bright red colour in flame. Both men tried and failed to isolate the element from its salts.
The element was not isolated until William Thomas Brande and Sir Humphry Davy later used electrolysis on lithium oxide in 1818. Robert Bunsen and Matiessen isolated larger quantities of the metal by electrolysis of lithium chloride in 1855.
Commercial production of lithium metal was achieved in 1923 by the German company Metallgesellschaft through using electrolysis of molten lithium chloride and potassium chloride. It was apparently given the name "lithium" because it was discovered from a mineral while other common alkali metals were first discovered from plant tissue.


Lithium is a soft, silvery metal, so soft that it can be cut with a sharp knife. It is the lightest of all metals and has a density only half that of water.
Lithium is one of only three elements - and the only metal - created in the first moments of the Big Bang. (The other two elements are hydrogen and helium, which according to cosmologists, were created in much greater abundance than lithium.)


Lithium causes serious burns, especially when in contact with damp skin. Contact with the eyes may cause serious permanent damage.
It is the only metal that reacts with nitrogen at room temperature. Near its melting point, lithium ignites in air. Lithium posses a dangerous fire and explosion risk when exposed to water, acids or oxidizing agents. Lithium fires are difficult to extinguish, requiring special chemicals designed to smother them. It reacts exothermally with nitrogen in moist air at high temperatures. In solution lithium is toxic and targets the central nervous system.

Lithium Compounds

Lithium bromide LiBr
An extremely hygroscopic and often used as a dessicant. Along with lithium chloride (LiCl), it is frequently used in air conditioning and industrial drying systems.

Lithium carbonate Li2CO3
A chemical compound that is used as a mood stabilizer in psychiatric treatment of manic states and bipolar disorder.

Lithium citrate Li3C6H5O7
A chemical compound that is used as a mood stabilizer in psychiatric treatment of manic states and bipolar disorder. Lithium fluoride LiF It is a white, inorganic, crystalline, ionic, solid salt (under standard conditions). It transmits ultraviolet radiation more efficiently than any other substance. Uses include specialized UV optics and thermoluminescent dosimeters.

Lithium hydride LiH
It has numerous uses, as a desiccant, among them as a precursor in chemical synthesis (in particular for lithium aluminium hydride), in hydrogen generators, as both a coolant and shielding in nuclear reactors, and in the manufacture of ceramics. One of its most infamous usages is as the fusion fuel in thermonuclear weapons, in the deuteride form; when this is irradiated with neutrons, lithium forms tritium (along with more neutrons, creating a chain reaction), which is a key ingredient in the thermonuclear reactions which power these devices.

Lithium hydroxide LiOH
It is made by mixing lithium and water. A reaction so violent, and so much heat is given off, that the hydrogen produced burns with a bright purple flame. For this reason, lithium batteries must be kept away from water. Lithium hydroxide is used in breathing gas purification systems for spacecraft, submarines, and rebreathers to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from exhaled gas by producing lithium carbonate (Li2CO3).

Lithium iodide LiI
Lithium iodide is used as an electrolyte for high temperature batteries. It is also used for long life batteries as required, for example, by cardiac pacemakers. The solid is used as a phosphor for neutron detection.

Lithium nitrate LiNO3
An oxidizing agent used in the manufacture of fireworks and flares. It is deliquescent.

Lithium perchlorate LiClO4 [Irritant : Oxidizer]
Lithium perchlorate is used as a fuel and oxygen source in some chemical oxygen generators. As it has both the highest weight to oxygen and volume to oxygen ratio of all perchlorates, it is especially advantageous in aerospace applications. It is also used extensively as an electrolyte in lithium batteries.

Lithium peroxide Li2O2
It is used in air purifiers such as those used in submarines to absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen.

Lithium sulfate Li2SO4
It is used to treat bipolar disorder.
Lithium tantalate LiTaO3
A crystalline solid which possesses unique optical, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties which make it valuable for infrared motion detectors, terahertz generation and detection, surface acoustic wave applications, cell phones and possibly pyroelectric nuclear fusion.

Reactions of Lithium

Reactions with water
Lithium metals reacts slowly with water to form a colourless solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and hydrogen gas, H2. The resulting solution is basic because of the dissolved hydroxide. The reaction is exothermic, but the reaction is slower than that of sodium.
2Li(s) + H2O(l) --> 2LiOH(aq) + H2(g)
Reactions with air
When lithium is burned in air, the main product is the white oxide lithium oxide, Li2O. Some lithium peroxide, Li2O2, also white, is also produced.
4Li(s) + O2(g) --> 2Li2O(s)
2Li(s) + O2(g) --> 2Li2O2(s)
Lithium reacts with nitrogen, N2, to form lithium nitride, Li3N. No other Gruop 1 element does anything similar, but the group 2 metal magnesium forms a similar nitride.
6Li(s) + N2(g) --> 2Li3N(s)
Reactions with halogens
Lithium metal reacts vigorously with all the halogens to form lithium halides.
2Li(s) + F2(g) --> LiF(s)
2Li(s) + Cl2(g) --> LiCl(s)
2Li(s) + Br2(g) --> LiBr(s)
2Li(s) + I2(g) --> LiI(s)
Reactions with acids
Lithium metal dissolves readily in dilute sulphuric acid to form solutions containing the aquated Li(I) ion together with hydrogen gas, H2.
2Li(s) + H2SO4(aq) --> 2Li+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + H2(g)
Reactions with bases
Lithium metals reacts slowly with water to form a colourless solution of basic lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and hydrogen gas (H2). The reaction continues even when the solution becomes basic. The resulting solution is basic because of the dissolved hydroxide. The reaction is exothermic, but the reaction is slower than that of sodium. As the reaction continues, the concentration of the hydroxide increases.
2Li(s) + 2H2O --> 2LiOH(aq) + H2(g)

Occurrence and Production of Lithium

On Earth, lithium is widely distributed, but because of its reactivity does not occur in its free form. In keeping with the origin of its name, lithium forms a minor part of almost all igneous rocks and is also found in many natural brines. Lithium is the thirty-first most abundant element, contained particularly in the minerals spodumene (LiAl(SiO3)2), lepidolite ((KLi2Al(Al,Si)3O10(F,OH)2), petalite (LiAlSi4O10), and amblygonite ((Li,Na)AlPO4(F,OH)). On average, Earth’s crust contains 65 parts per million (ppm) lithium.
Since the end of World War II, lithium metal production has greatly increased.
The metal is separated from other elements in igneous mineral such as those above, and is also extracted from the water of mineral springs. The metal is produced electrolytically from a mixture of fused lithium and potassium chloride. In 1998 it was about US$ 43 per pound ($95 per kg).
Chile is currently the leading lithium metal producer in the world, with Argentina next. Both countries recover the lithium from brine pools. In the United States lithium is similarly recovered from brine pools in Nevada.

Isotopes of Lithium

6Li [3 neutrons]
Abundance: 7.5%
Stable with 3 neutrons
Lithium-6 is valued as a source material for tritium (an isotope of hydrogen) production and as a neutron absorber in nuclear fusion.
7Li [4 neutrons]
Abundance: 92.5%
Stable with 4 neutrons
7Li is one of the primordial elements or, more properly, primordial isotopes, produced in Big Bang nucleosynthesis (a small amount of 6Li is also produced in stars).
ACD/ChemSketch 12.01 Build 28379

ACD/ChemSketch 12.01 Build 28379

This application is a handy and complex chemical structure creator.

Visualize a chemically intelligent drawing interface that provides a portal to an entire range of analytical tools, and facilitates the transformation of structural or analytical data into professional, easy-to-decipher reports or presentations.

Advanced Chemistry Development, Inc., (ACD/Labs) has developed such an interface, and has integrated it with every desktop software module they produce. To date, over 800,000 chemists have incorporated ACD/Labs' chemical drawing and graphics package, ACD/ChemSketch, into their daily routines. Academic institutions worldwide have adopted this software as an interactive teaching tool to simplify and convey chemistry concepts to their students, and publishing bodies such as Thieme, the publisher of Science of Synthesis, consider it to be "...supportive of the organic chemistry publisher's role, both in the construction of compounds and their basic analysis."

ACD/ChemSketch is an advanced chemical drawing tool and is the accepted interface for the industry's best NMR and molecular property predictions, nomenclature, and analytical data handling software.

Here are some key features of "ACD/ChemSketch":

  1. Drawing of Molecular Structures
  2. Select atom, click, and drag to create bonds.
  3. "Chemical intelligence" automatically assigns hydrogen atoms and charges to fill valence and shows when the valence limit of bonding has been exceeded.
  4. Create chemical structures from InChI and SMILES codes.
  5. Wide range of special bond types - aromatic, delocalized, undefined single and double stereo, quadruple, and several presentations of coordination bonds.
  6. Draw Markush structures (generic view), structures with delocalization and polymers.
  7. Create special Markush structures with added or removed mass or fragments to describe metabolic and mass-spectral transformations.
  8. Present reactions: draw, import/export, map atom-atom transformation (manual as well as automatic), and edit reaction conditions.
  9. Customize display properties, e.g., atom numbering, chemical symbols, valence, and so forth.
  10. Control Hydrogen position near each atom.
  11. Hundreds of structures in the template window.
  12. Use the "Clean" option for the entire molecule or user-selected fragments.
  13. hange a drawing's appearance to a different style (e.g., J. Org. Chem. style) in one step.
  14. Paste structures drawn in other applications or import them as a file.
  15. Apply powerful 3D and 2D rotation, and move/resize features.
  16. Structure Search
  17. Our Search for Structure system allows you to seek out chemical structures in various file formats throughout your computer's file systems. These formats include: SK2, MOL, SDF, SKC, CHM, CDX, RXN, and PDF (Adobe Acrobat); DOC (Microsoft Word), XLS (Microsoft Excel), and PPT (Microsoft PowerPoint), and ACD/Labs databases: CUD, HUD, CFD, NDB, ND5, and INT. Microsoft Word documents with structures created in ChemDraw or MDL ISIS can also be retrieved. Not only can you perform exact structure searches, but you can also search by substructure. Added options allow you to preview search results, open search result documents in ChemSketch as well as in other applications, and store search results for later access.
  18. Chemistry
  19. Draw 2D structures and obtain 3D models with the geometry optimization button.
  20. Instantly display chemical formula, molecular weight, percentage composition, and estimated macroscopic properties: molar refractivity, refractive index, molar volume, density, parachor, and others.
  21. Generate InChI unique identifiers for chemical structures and chemical structures from InChI.
  22. Expanded Periodic Table of Elements includes physical and NMR properties and isotope composition for each element. Images of elements in their natural form are included.
  23. Draw reactions and complex chemical schemes with manual or automatic mapping.
  24. Calculate quantities for chemical reactions and solutions.
  25. Update the internal database of fragment names and abbreviations with your own data.
  26. Spell-check chemical abbreviated structures.
  27. Save and read standard graphic formats (PDF, BMP, WMF, GIF, PNG, JPG, TIFF, and PCX).
  28. Reporting
  29. Create professional chemistry-related reports and presentations.
  30. Export your ChemSketch files to Adobe Acrobat PDF format.
  31. Cut and paste structures and chemical information directly into your favorite Windows application and maintain OLE links.
  32. With ChemSketch Goodies, convert your pages into HTML.
  33. Use other ACD/Labs data (i.e., 1D NMR Spectrum) to generate stunning reports and presentations.
  34. Create templates for generating reports from other ACD/Labs products by your own rules or company standards.
  35. Document properties option that includes user and document information.
  36. Create templates for ChemSketch documents including owner, date, file name, page numbers, and various data.
  37. Simplify document editing and print only high quality documents using the Print Preview option for up to 10,000 pages.
  38. Enhanced Graphics
  39. General drawing tools such as lines, polygons, Bezier curves, and arrows.
  40. Custom graphic templates.
  41. Numerous colors and object styles.
  42. Enhanced text processing.
  43. Create tables, edit a quantity of columns and rows, change their size, insert and remove any object into (from) table cells, auto-split large tables keeping logical integrity of a table (virtual tables), etc.
  44. Rotate text & graphics.
  45. Chemistry-specific graphics such as electron orbitals (s, p, d, f) and Lewis dot(s).
  46. Save and read standard graphic formats (PDF, BMP, WMF, GIF, TIFF, and PCX).
  47. ACD/Dictionary
  48. ACD/3D Viewer
  49. ACD/Name (Restricted Freeware Version)
  50. ACD/Tautomers
  51. ACD/Labs Extension for ChemDraw
  52. ACD/I-Lab Add-on for ChemSketch
  53. ACD/ChemBasic and the Goodies Package
  54. SDF Viewer (restricted Version of ACD/ChemFolder)

Click here to download ACD/ChemSketch 12.01 Build 28379



CB Blogger