Karakteristik, Sifat, dan Sumber Karbohidrat Sukrosa - Jejaring Kimia


Agustus 24, 2011

Karakteristik, Sifat, dan Sumber Karbohidrat Sukrosa

Sucrose or sugar cane is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sucrose is formed by many plants, but is not present in higher animals. In contrast to maltose and lactose, sucrose does not contain free carbon atom anomeres, since the carbon anomers of both components of the monosaccharide unit in sucrose bond to one another.

As solids, sucrose usually crystallizes. If you look at your table sugar intently, or with a magnifying glass, you'll see that it looks like a lot of tiny crystals. If you've ever tried to melt the sugar in a pan on the stove, you know that it is flammable. In chemistry, we call this combustion reaction. If you heat the soft sucrose to the right temperature, you will get caramel. Through a process called caramelization, sucrose breaks down and reforms different sugars that give you different caramel flavors and colors.

Characteristics and Properties of Sucrose Carbohydrates

sucrose [O-β-D-fructofuranosyl- (2 → 1) -α-D-gluco-pyranoside]
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It is for this reason that open sucrose is a reducing sugar. Although D-glucose is the main building unit of both starch and cellulose compounds, sucrose is a major intermediate photosynthetic product. In many plants sucrose is the main form in transport of sugar from the leaves to other parts of the plant through the pascular system. The advantage of sucrose compared to D-glucose as a sugar transport may be because the anomalous carbon atom is in a bonded state, thus, protecting sucrose from oxidative or hydrolytic attacks by plant enzymes until the molecule reaches its final destination in the plant.

Sucrose is a natural chemical found in plants, although it can also be synthesized in the laboratory. It is much easier and cheaper to extract it from a plant than to make it from scratch. Sugar cane and beet sugar are the two plants used to make the most sucrose, or refined table sugar. Hot water is used to extract sucrose. The extract can then be concentrated into the syrup and then crystallized to make table sugar. Sugar cane grows and is mostly used in hot climates, while sugar beets grow in colder areas.

No one knows for sure who knows first how to extract and improve sucrose, but that might just happen in ancient India or China. We know for sure that South Asia and the Middle East have improved the sugar before Europe did it. It's expensive and sugar merchants are rich. Sucrose did not become commonplace among Europeans or westerners until the 1700s when slave labor was used in large sugar plantations in South America and the Caribbean. Currently, sugar is not expensive and we find in many processed foods.
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Animals can not absorb the sucrose as in plants, but can absorb the molecule with the help of the enzyme suction, also called invertase, which is inside the cell that limits the small intestinal wall. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into D-gukose and D-fructose, which is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. Sucrose is the sweetest disaccharide among the three common disaccharide types. Sucrose is also sweeter than glucose.

Rino Safrizal
Jejaring Kimia Updated at: Agustus 24, 2011

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